1918 ad: Save Fuel in Dairy Plants

. Sunday, June 23, 2013

Save Fuel in Dairy Plants. Nearly one-half the coal can be saved. For greatest economy: Keep Boilers Clean Both Inside and Out. Scale reduces the boiler efficiency and endangers its safety. Soot is one of the best insulators knows, even a thin layer results in a large loss of heat. Cover Steam Piping, Uptakes and Breeching and Exposed Parts of Boiler. As uncovered surface of 100 square will cause a loss under average conditions, of about one ton of coal a month. A 2-inch thickness of 85 per cent, magnesia covering will save 80 per cent of this loss. Stop all Leaks -- Steam, Water and Air. With a steam pressure of 70 pounds, openings equivelant to 1-100 of a square inch will waste 43 pounds of steam an hour, a loss under average conditions of about one ton of coal a month. Leakage of water from try cocks, blow-off valves, etc. under 70 pounds' pressure, from openings aggregating 1-100 of a square inch will cause a loss of about two tons of coal a month -- plus the loss of water; this loss goes on continuously.Heat loss due to air leaks is the most serious. Four times the required amount of air, which is not uncommon in dairy plants, will cause a fuel loss of 20 per cent. Regulate Dampers to Load Requirements. Don't see sub-pit damper to control draft, but use the one in up-take or breeching. Set this damper to give required draft. Two much draft will cause loss through admitting excess air. Cut out boilers not needed. A boiler works most effiiently at normal load. Don'tuse two boilers if one will do the work. Keep even pressure on boiler. Forcing a boiler reduces its efficiency. A fluctuating pressure at times requires forcing the fire and consequent loss in efficiency. An even pressure results in even firing and hence higher efficiency. Feed the boiler continuously. If possible, deliver the boiler feed water continuously, thus minimizing the fluctuations in steam pressure; more even firing will result. Utilize the Heat in Exhaust Steam. In small plants nearly 90 per cent of the heat in live steam remains in the exhaust. This waste heat may be used for heating the boiler feed water, the wash water, for pasteurizing and for heating the building. By using all the exhaust steam the capacity of the boiler is almost doubled or the fuel consumed is reduced nearly one-half. Systemize the work and reduce time of firing boiler. Arrange to do all work requiring heat and power in as short a time as possible. In many plants such work can be done in the forenoon, after which the boiler should be shut down. Plan operations to avoid heavy boiler loads. Pasteurizing causes a heavy lead, so, while pasteurizing, do not use stream for other purposes. If pasteurizing is done with hot water, provide a storage heater, and store up heat for the purpose. Don't waste hot water. Hot water is essential in dairy plants, but in many plants large quantities are needlessly wasted. In the average plant it takes about 10 pounds of coal to heat a barrel of wash water. By wasting a barrel of hot water daily about 300 pounds of coal a month is needlessly burned. Operate engine, pumps at motor at most efficient load. Engines, pumps and motors run most efficiently at normal loads. Keep them running at as near full load as possible and stop them when not in use. Study methods of firing. Improper firing is the cause of large fuel less. Fire often and in small quantities. Spread evenly and see that all holes in the fuel bed are covered. Admit air over fuel bed for a short time, immediately after adding fresh fuel. Keep fires burning briskly at all times. About 10 pounds of coal is required for each horse-power capacity of boiler for raising steam. This quantity will be greater increased if attention is not given to the fires during this time. Keep bearings correctly aligned and lubricated. Bearings and shafting when out of alignment consumes a great deal more power than when correctly adjusted. Poorly lubricated bearings are also a source of power loss. Keep belts at proper tension and in good repair. Belts that are run slack lose power through excessive slipping. When too tight they cause increased friction in bearings and consequent loss of power. Study your plant. Save fuel. For further information, write to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

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